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Womens Beanie Marc O'Polo
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Homecoming  In the fifth and last part of the New York Times’ “Invisible Child” series, Chanel and her children move into an apartment in Harlem, NY. (Ruth Fremson / The New York Times / Redux)


The study found that readers of the narrative story felt a higher degree of compassion and empathy for Martinez, feelings that extended to undocumented immigrants as a group. Overall, the narrative readers altered their attitudes and opinions positively and were more interested in seeking additional information about the living conditions of undocumented immigrants, or even taking action to help.

Academics explain this narrative effect via something called “transportation theory,” and while you may not be familiar with the term, you know the feeling:

“This was among the most moving stories I have ever read. When Chanel [Dasani’s mother] clasped her hands together in prayer in her new Harlem apartment, I wanted to burst in and celebrate with her and her kids,” wrote Nathaniel from West Orange, NJ, in an online comment on “Invisible Child.”

That’s transportation. Being so engaged in a story that it feels as if you inhabit that space and time, and feeling so connected to the characters that their joys and sorrows spark a physical reaction in you.

It’s a phenomenon that parallels what Ickes showed with his stranger experiment. Scientific findings suggest that when we read and experience characters in a story, the brain processes our understanding of those unknown others similarly to how we understand real, physical others.

Familiar faces  Chanel says she and Dasani are still approached by supportive strangers on the street who recognize them from the “Invisible Child” series. (Ruth Fremson / The New York Times / Redux)

Familiar faces

The more transported you feel, the more likely you’ll be to change your opinions and beliefs about the real world, psychologists Melanie C. Green and Timothy C. Brock write in The Role of Transportation in the Persuasiveness of Public Narratives . That feeling can be so strong that it leads to altered behavior, such as giving a $100 bill to a family of strangers. David Comer Kidd and Emanuele Castano even suggest that reading narratives make us more empathetic overall, because stories force us to engage in intense perspective taking.

What we intuitively believe to be true about how journalistic stories can spark empathy among readers is backed up by science. The question we’re left with is whether that spark may diminish as our culture turns toward digital.


A middle-aged woman reaches for the handle of her front door. Her body is rigid and her limbs protrude at sharp angles. Her wheelchair lurches and stops in strange syncopation. Her movements are typical of someone with cerebral palsy.

Best Health Magazine Canada

Live Better. Feel Great

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/ Fitness / This Is Why You Sweat So Much And Other Women Sweat Less Than You Do
There is a scientific reason you sweat so much (and a reason if you don't at all). Read this to get your perspiration problems solved!

Brooke Nelson, RD.com

photo credit: shutterstock

Raise your hand if you’re the sweatiest girl after spin

Think you are the only person in class who sweats so much? Don’t sweat it.

Or maybe it’s the opposite situation for you, and everyone else is sweating so much while you walk away with a little forehead shimmer. ( Or maybe your face goes red instead. )

Or maybe your face goes red instead.

No matter your sitch, it’s not just your imagination. There’s a scientific explanation behind why some people sweat so much more than others.

Your body has between two to four million sweat glands, and their purpose is to maintain a normal body temperature – and cool you down when it’s above average– by producing sweat.

That said, a number of factors could determine how much you perspire, including your gender, the number of sweat glands you have, the intensity of your exercise, and even your weight, according to Medical Daily .

according to Medical Daily

First of all, guys sweat more than women. While women have just as many sweat glands than men, their glands do not produce as much sweat. That’s why men tend to sweat more than women. (Thankfully there are makeup tips that will save a sweat-prone pretty face .)

makeup tips that will save a sweat-prone pretty face

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could also be the culprit behind your proclivity to sweat.

Your fitness regime

Fit people tend to bust a sweat so much and sooner in a workout, because it’s more efficient to perspire while their body temperature remains low.

Someone who remains fairly sedentary, on the other hand, may heat up faster and lose more sweat when they exercise. Since fat tends to trap heat and raise the body’s core temperature, overweight people typically sweat more, too.

Try cutting back on your consumption of caffeine and alcohol, as well as smoking. These habits can all cause your sweat glands to go overboard. (Here are signs you’re drinking too much coffee .)

signs you’re drinking too much coffee

And check out your workout clothes. Fitness clothes, like the rest of the fashions in your closet, have seasons as well as purpose (meant to be worn inside or outside). If you are sweating tons, opt for for lighter, more airy fabrics that allow your skin to breathe.

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Each day, our students are bombarded with the visual images of TV and video games. In contrast, most students view reading as a passive activity. But a simple technique can transform students of all ages from passive to active readers; visualization can help students cross the boundary to improved comprehension.

Your students will be able to grasp the visualization technique by following a simple, step-by-step plan:


Direct modeling of the active thought processes involved in visualizing text is the first step. Begin with a familiar fiction read-aloud. As you read a short passage, describe images see in mind. For example, you might use the following quote from

After reading that quote, share with students the images you visualized as you read it.


When you finish sharing your thoughts, let students try the same technique on their own. Share a highly descriptive reading selection appropriate for students' listening vocabulary level (up to two years above their reading vocabulary). If necessary, before reading share a vocabulary mini-lesson to introduce unfamiliar terms. Depending on the ages of your students, you might choose from the following titles or use a title of your choice that provides excellent descriptive passages.

Before reading aloud to students, offer the suggestions below.

For students identified as "at-risk", you might discuss what it feels like to be hot, or what shade of red a tomato might be, or how musty gym socks smell when they've been in a locker for three days. Give them concrete ideas and connect to prior knowledge. In other words, turn on the thought processes and you will prime students to do the same when they read. Remind them to think about what characters smell, taste, feel, hear, and think. Good readers do that. Also, point out to students that this technique will help them remember what the story is about.


After reading the selection, direct a class discussion in which students share images. Emphasize that everyone's visualizations will differ. Be sure to acknowledge and value all students' ideas.


Next, use a different selection from the same or another text. Tell students you will share part of a story (show no illustrations). Ask them to draw their own illustrations as they listen. The physical act of creating a picture can help students grasp the concept of visualization.

To connect this image building with comprehension and to reinforce the concept of visualization, make time to share and discuss students' images. That might be done in small groups first, then as a class.


After students begin to grasp the concept of visualization, be sure to reinforce it frequently. Make visualization a part of class every day. Those who have more difficulty with the concept will learn from peers' expressions imagination. Encourage those who struggle to ask other students how they came up with their ideas and to learn from one another.

Integrate this exercise into daily class read-alouds and silent reading. Incorporate not only physical images, but also ideas about feelings the characters might experience. (That will exercise students' critical thinking skills, especially their skill at making inferences.) Use the combination of drawings and mental image-making that works best for your students. As you progress, you can move from descriptive texts into expository texts.

By using visualization, you open the door for life-long reading. Most of all, you help develop in students the habit of actively thinking about what they read -- which leads to greater retention and understanding.


by Susan Zimmerman and Ellin Oliver Keene (Heinemann, 1997).

Cathy Puett Miller is a passionate advocate for early literacy. Known widely as "The Literacy Ambassador," Miller connects children, families, and teachers with resources to create positive early reading experiences.

As you listen, when you hear describing words (adjectives) -- such as or -- use those words to help paint pictures in your head.

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Jess Shankleman
Fund was set up in 2010 to act as a conduit for climate aid
Howard Bamsey left director post after 1 1/2 years on the job

The head of the Green Climate Fund, set up by the United Nations in the fight against global warming, stepped down abruptly after less than two years on the job, leaving the organization’s future in doubt.

Howard Bamsey, an Australian diplomat who served as the GCF’s executive director since January 2017, resigned after a “difficult” meeting in which no new projects were approved, according to a statement released after the gathering in Songdo, South Korea.

“This has been a very difficult and disappointing board meeting for all of us, but most importantly for those people who are most vulnerable to climate change impacts, and who depend on the activities of the Fund,” Lennart Bage, chairman of the GCF’s meeting, said in the statement.

Established in 2010, the fund has committed to $3.7 billion of projects aimed at reducing greenhouse gases and helping nations overcome the impact of climate change. It has struggled since U.S. President Donald Trump vowed to slash funding for the initiative as well as other environmental projects.

“Everyone said this is the low point,” said Jasmine Hyman, an environmental consultant at the British firm E Co. who attended the meeting. “This was a disappointing meeting but hopefully it’s a canary in the mine and not a nail in the coffin.”

Bamsey was the fund’s second executive director and had a mandate of expanding the loans the organization makes to green projects in developing nations. Most of the four-day meeting was spent discussing agenda items and how replace another envoy who had been representing developing countries, according to Hyman.

“I have been considering the best timing for my departures from the secretariat,” Bamsey said in a letter released by the GCF. “Pressing personal issues meant I would simply not be able to stay until the end of next year which is when replenishment is likely to conclude.”

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